Leibniz’s Monad “单子“ (人生的单元)

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Leibniz co-invented “Calculus” independently from Newton, but with more friendly symbols “dy/dx” (for differentiation) and big “S” (for Integration) .

He also invented the Binary Theory (0 & 1) – which he later discovered was coincidentally the ancient Chinese “Yin-Yang” – through correspondences with the Jesuit priest mathematician 白晋 (Joachim Bouvet) who was sent by the French King Louis 14th to teach the 16-year-old Emperor Kang Xi 康熙 in Euclidean Geometry, except Algebra since Kang Xi hated abstract x, y, z, preferred the Chinese “Abacus” Algorithmetic methods deemed far more advanced.

Admiring the ancient Chinese Philosophy, Leibniz also proposed Chinese 中文 as the ultimate Universal Language (“Esperanto”) to French King Louis 14th. Today 370 years later, Chinese is a favorite second language in the West, including the Anti-China Trump’s grand-children.

As a philosopher, Leibniz proposed the concept of “Monad” (单子) [*] to understand the “Scheduled Harmony” (预定和谐) of God’s creation.

Monad (d) is the basic “Atom” of life. By interaction within all monads by n times ({d^{n}}) , any human endeavor if without the sum of (spiritual fulfillment ‘X‘ 心灵完满 + physical happiness ‘S‘ 身体幸福), will never achieve the ultimate wonderful world ‘C‘ 精彩世界 through the God’s process of scheduled Harmony [§] .

Monad is like a symphony orchestra in which each instrument “monad” plays different musical notes in scheduled harmony to produce a piece of beautiful music.


Monad applied to life, business, entrepreneurship, only when fulfilling this above formula will success be guaranteed.

[§] : Steve Jobs’ last words as the “ life testimony of the meaning of Leibniz’s Monad

[*] Do not get confused by the same word Monad” (单子) in Category Theory (1960s – ) as the :

“Endo-Functor of Monoid” .

Philip Wadler (Edinburgh University) first introduced “Monad” in Haskell computer language , now common in all Functional Programming (FP) languages (Scala, F#, C++, Clojure, … ) to wrap non-pure “side-effects” in pure FP.


:(象形) { 一丿口豆页… }

文 compose to 字 :
一丿口 = 石,豆页 =頭 (simplified 头)

:石,头 etc [英文,日文没有"字"]


藏语 也是 ""由""组成。

所以汉 / 藏是同语系 (Sino-Tibetan Family).

Note: 汉 / 藏既然本一家, 何来西藏独立 ?那是英国和印度搞破坏中国的政治阴谋!

Now I understand why Chinese & Tibetan languages are classified as same 汉藏语 (Sino-Tibetan Family), unique in the world vis-a-vis the western Phoenician alphabetic (Hebrew / Arabic / Greek / Latin European) family or the Altaic family (Turkish, Mongolian, Korean, Japanese)…

The stark uniqueness is the language “atom” (字) only exists in 汉藏语, not in other families.
Eg. :石,头,山, 火,车,
which can form :
词 (word) :石头,火车 ,火石,山石,山头…
whereas in English: stone 石 is a "word”, not a “字” (which can compose with others). The English alphabetic letters (字母 : abcd… xyz) cannot form words (eg. ‘a’+’z’ = ‘az’ meaningless) .

A language is powerful if it can be composed by only few “atoms”, the same priciple in the Functional Programming Lisp which is written with only “5 atoms” (car, cdr, cons, … ) . That explains why the maximum common 字 any Chinese needs is 4,000 “atomic” 字 (coverage of 99.9% [^] usage ) .

[^] : according to the research done by 周有光, the inventor of 汉语拼音 Pinyin.


Tibetan language developed in 7CE Tang dynasty when the great emperor 唐太宗 married the princess 文成公主 to Tibet King. This was also the same 7CE era the “illiterate sans 文字” Japanese imported Chinese characters (and Tang pronunciation 唐音 based on then 吴语 which sounds like Hokkien / 闽南语 today).