Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Leibniz co-invented “Calculus” independently from Newton, but with more friendly symbols “dy/dx” (for differentiation) and big “S” (for Integration) .
He also invented the Binary Theory (0 & 1) – which he later discovered was coincidentally the ancient Chinese “Yin-Yang” – through correspondences with the Jesuit priest mathematician 白晋 (Joachim Bouvet) who was sent by the French King Louis 14th to teach the 16-year-old Emperor Kang Xi 康熙 in Euclidean Geometry, except Algebra since Kang Xi hated abstract x, y, z, preferred the Chinese “Abacus” Algorithmetic methods deemed far more advanced.
Admiring the ancient Chinese Philosophy, Leibniz also proposed Chinese 中文 as the ultimate Universal Language (“Esperanto”) to French King Louis 14th. Today 370 years later, Chinese is a favorite second language in the West, including the Anti-China Trump’s grand-children.
As a philosopher, Leibniz proposed the concept of “Monad” (单子) [*] to understand the “Scheduled Harmony” (预定和谐) of God’s creation.
Monad (d) is the basic “Atom” of life. By interaction within all monads by n times () , any human endeavor if without the sum of (spiritual fulfillment ‘X‘ 心灵完满 + physical happiness ‘S‘ 身体幸福), will never achieve the ultimate wonderful world ‘C‘ 精彩世界 through the God’s process of scheduled Harmony [§] .
Monad is like a symphony orchestra in which each instrument “monad” plays different musical notes in scheduled harmony to produce a piece of beautiful music.
Monad applied to life, business, entrepreneurship, only when fulfilling this above formula will success be guaranteed.
[§] : Steve Jobs’ last words as the “ life testimony of the meaning of Leibniz’s Monad”
[*] Do not get confused by the same word Monad” (单子) in Category Theory (1960s – ) as the :
“Endo-Functor of Monoid” .
Philip Wadler (Edinburgh University) first introduced “Monad” in Haskell computer language , now common in all Functional Programming (FP) languages (Scala, F#, C++, Clojure, … ) to wrap non-pure “side-effects” in pure FP.