“I brought a bag and went to a street near bus stop to buy something”
This is a sentence spoken by an old lady in Beijing. 哇單 (pronunciation: wadnn) from the sentence means bag (包袱皮) in Manchu. 客 is “to go (去; pronunciation: gene)” in Manchu. 站 means 站赤 (pronunciation: jam) in Mongolian. 胡同 (pronunciation: hutong) is 浩特 or 河屯 (pronunciation: hoton) in Mongolian. In such a short sentence, there are already vocabularies from Chinese, Manchu and Mongolian languages. The grammar of the sentence is Chinese, pronunciation and tones are Barbarian. And who knows a sentence in Beijing speech is that difficult? Beijing speech seems to be the result of ethnic integration and symbolises the unity of races of China.
Xianbei 鲜卑 ( Siberian)
Eastern Jin 东晋
Jurchen 女真族 Jin 金 (占领朝鲜半岛, 再占领北宋的中国北方, 被蒙古灭 )
North Wei 北魏 (鲜卑人汉化)
◇ 分裂 东魏 / 西魏 : 花木兰时代
◇ 再各分 North Qi 北齐/ North Zhou 北周
◇ 北周的杨坚篡位, 统一南北朝400年的乱世, 建立隋朝。
Question on @Quora: What is the truth of Mandarin? https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-truth-of-Mandarin?srid=oZzP&share=f24533f8
MM Lee on 30 years of Speak Mandarin Campaign (Pt 1):
MM Lee on 30 years of Speak Mandarin Campaign (Pt 2):
“Mandarin” = Portugueses called the 16th century Ming dynasty officers, also referred to their spoken Chinese (Beijing spoken dialect 北京官话).
“Mandarin” derived from Malay (Menteri) which came from Sanskrit (Mentrin)
例: 雪兰峨州的 Menteri Besar 首席大臣。
The Chief Minister of Selangor State.